Scientific Studies 2015

Note: Papers marked with (A) are written in English

  • Ervín Hausvater, Petr Doležal, Petra Baštová, Jitka Dejmalová
    The efficacy of fungicide programmes on potato late blight, early blight and brown spot
  • Tomáš Litschmann, Petr Doležal, Ervín Hausvater
    Temperature and monture conditions for potato growing
  • Václav Krejzar, Iveta Pánková
    Spectrum of soft rot bacteria in primarily colonized potato tubers by oomycetes Phytophthora infestans
  • Tomáš Litschmann, Petr Doležal, Ervín Hausvater
    A new method of potato late blight forecast and its verification in our conditions
  • Vladimíra Sedláková, Petr Sedlák, Dana Čílová, Jakub Vašek
    Study of DNA CAPS markers variability in selected species of genus Solanum

The efficacy of fungicide programmes on potato late blight, early blight and brown spot

HAUSVATER, E. – DOLEŽAL, P. – BAŠTOVÁ, P. – DEJMALOVÁ, J.
Vědecké práce – Výzkumný ústav bramborářský Havlíčkův Brod, 2015, 23: 9-24

In exact field trials performed between 2012 and 2014 in the potato production region of the Czech Republic with medium-early variety Ditta (susceptible to late blight) the efficacy of selected fungicide programmes was evaluated on potato foliar and tuber blight. Fungicide programmes were modified and directed to aspects of ecological treatment, first application date, number of sprays, forecast and vegetation ending. The disease forecasting was performed using the method NoBlight. Individual experimental years highly differed in weather course; they were not very favourable for late blight and were characterized by temperature and precipitation fluctuations. This caused delayed onset of epidemic disease spreading. Therefore individual applications from fungicide programmes succeeded in the latter half of the growing season. This was reflected in smaller yield differences between treated variants and relatively low loss in untreated control. More significant results in tuber infection were only obtained in 2013, when conditions for tuber infection were suitable toward the end of the growing season. The year 2014 was characterized by extreme occurrence of early blight and brown spot, which were epidemically distributed together with late blight. Obtained findings do not unambiguously show preference of individual control measures in experimental years. However, we can conclude that in seasons with very variable weather fungicide applications should be operationally done based on weather course and infection pressure of the disease in order to ensure effective control and follow principles of integrated management. Simultaneously, it was shown that further and continuous observation is necessary for fine tuning of late blight forecasts, pathogen resistance to fungicides and compilation of fungicide programmes to solve combined late blight, early blight and brown spot control.

potatoes; late blight; fungicide programmes; early blight and brown spot

Corresponding author:
Ing. Ervín Hausvater, CSc., Potato Research Institute Havlíčkův Brod, Ltd.,
Dobrovského 2366, 580 01 Havlíčkův Brod, Czech Republic
phone: +420 569 466 237, e-mail: hausvater@vubhb.cz

Temperature and moisture conditions for potato growing

LITSCHMANN, T. – DOLEŽAL, P. – HAUSVATER, E.
Vědecké práce  –  Výzkumný ústav bramborářský Havlíčkův Brod, 2015, 23: 25-34

The contribution presents one of the possible approaches to exact expression of weather conditions acting on potato growth and yield formation. The construction of two indexes, temperature and moisture one is described. Using the combination of the indexes every day in the period from May to August could be classified into one of nine temperature and moisture categories. For temperature index calculation average hourly values of air temperatures are used, the moisture index is determined using data about soil moisture, at best directly measured near the studied locality. Soil moisture provides more complex data about real amount of water, which is available to plants rather than data about precipitation, for which various conditions for infiltration could occur in dependence on precipitation intensity and infiltration capacity of given soil. Comparison of frequencies and calendar occurrence of individual categories of temperature and moisture indexes is demonstrated for two localities and the years 2014 and 2015. In 2014 excellent yields and potato quality were obtained; in 2015 due to insufficient moisture and high temperatures potato yields were approx. 30 % decreased compared to previous year. In 2014 days in the categories cold, moist, cold-moist and normal were dominant, while in 2015 the highest distribution was recorded for the category dry and warm-dry

potatoes; temperature index; moisture index

Corresponding author:
RNDr. Tomáš Litschmann, Ph.D., AMET, Velké Bílovice
Žižkovská 1230, 691 02 Velké Bílovice, Czech Republic
phone: +420 731 702 744, e-mail: amet@email.cz

Spectrum of soft rot bacteria in primarily colonized potato tubers by oomycetes Phytophthora infestans

KREJZAR, V. – PÁNKOVÁ, I.
Vědecké práce – Výzkumný ústav bramborářský Havlíčkův Brod, 2015, 23: 35-44

In the years 2012-2015 were analyzes spectrum of soft rot bacteria in potato tubers primarily colonized by oomycetes Phytophthora infestans. We analysed altogether 133 samples of potato tubers from seven localities in the Czech Republic. Of a total 133 samples of tubers we analysed microbiologically of 199 subsamples from different parts of the tuber tissue and exudates on the surface of the tuber. Pectinolytic bacteria were detected in 45 of 66 genotypes and not detected in 21 genotypes. Pectinolytic bacteria were detected in 67 of 133 tubers and not detected in 66 tubers. From a total of 18 tubers with exudates of oomycetes P. infestans on the surface were detected pectinolytic bacteria in 11 tubers. Of a total 93 isolates pectinolytic bacteria obtained from symptomatic tubers was determined Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum bacterium in 69 % respectively. Subsequently, the obtained isolates species Pseudomonas marginalis (16 %), P. putida (10 %), P. corrugata (2 %), Dickeya chrysanthemi (1 %), P. atrosepticum (1 %), P. viridiflava (1 %).

late blight; Phytophthora infestans; soft rot; pectinolytic bacteria; Dickeya chrysanthemi; Pectobacterium atrosepticum; P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum; Pseudomonas corrugata; P. marginalis; P. putida; P. viridiflava; potatoes

Corresponding author: 
Ing. Václav Krejzar, Ph.D., Crop Research Institute,
Drnovská 507, 161 06 Prague 6, Czech Republic
phone: +420 233 022 427, e-mail: krejzar@vurv.cz

A new method of potato late blight forecast and its verification in our conditions

LITSCHMANN, T. – DOLEŽAL, P. – HAUSVATER, E.
Vědecké práce  –  Výzkumný ústav bramborářský Havlíčkův Brod, 2015, 23: 45-54

The submitted study presents evaluation of obtained results from potato late blight forecast under conditions of the Czech Republic using a new constructed index. These results are compared with dates forecasted for the same localities using NoBlight and “negative prognosis”. It is shown that in most cases the index method was more successful (approx. in 80 % of all evaluated cases), while the other two methods in only approx. 50 % of cases. A hopeful fact for potential using in the practice is that in all cases, when the index method generated first application date delayed, “negative prognosis” (NegFry) forecasted the right date and on contrary, so it could be possible to use always earlier forecasted date of one of these methods.

potato late blight; forecast; prognosis; index method; negative prognosis; NoBlight; NegFry

Corresponding author:
RNDr. Tomáš Litschmann, Ph.D., AMET, Velké Bílovice
Žižkovská 1230, 691 02 Velké Bílovice, Czech Republic
phone: +420 731 702 744, e-mail: amet@email.cz

Study of DNA CAPS markers variability in selected species of genus Solanum

SEDLÁKOVÁ, V. – SEDLÁK, P. – ČÍLOVÁ, D. – VAŠEK, J.
Vědecké práce  –  Výzkumný ústav bramborářský Havlíčkův Brod, 2015, 23: 55-66

Within the Solanum genus, there are many gene resources usable in potato resistance breeding. Analysis of 42 genotypes of different Solanum species did not confirm the presumption that the dominant alleles of CAPS markers, SPUD237, GP21 and GP34 allow to uniquely identify genes Nb, R1, Rx1 and Rx2. On the contrary, CAPS analysis detected a high degree of polymorphism in amplified DNA fragments. There was detected an intra and interspecific variability. A comprehensive evaluation of these markers we performed by UPGMA cluster analysis. It was found that there is needed significantly larger data set for the taxonomic sorting of genotypes into four artificial clades, however, some results of similarity evaluation correspond with the literature cited. There was detected a positive correlation between the total number of restriction fragments from all markers and an EBN value (R = 0.79) and the ploidy degree (R = 0.56) by means of the regression and correlation analysis. This results to the hypothesis that with the increasing of genome variability caused by the origin and number of chromosomes is increasing, inter alia EBN value serving as the postzygotic barrier of embryo development.

Solanum; DNA polymorphism; restriction digestion; resistance genes; statistical evaluation

Corresponding author:
Ing. Vladimíra Sedláková, Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague,
Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
phone: +420 224 382 563, e-mail: sedlakova@af.czu.cz

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