Brambory - zdravá potravina

Scientific Studies 2013

Note: Papers marked with (A) are written in English

  • Tomáš Litschmann, Petr Doležal, Ervín Hausvater
    Determination of potato emergence date based on meteorological data
  • Ervín Hausvater, Petr Doležal, Jitka Dejmalová, Petra Baštová, Vladimíra Sedláková, Jana Mazáková
    Fungicide efficacy against potato late blight between 2010 and 2013
  • Jaroslava Domkářová, Bohumil Vokál, Andrea Svobodová, Václav Čermák
    Characteristics determining potato suitability for washing and their relation to cooking types and starch content
  • Jaroslava Domkářová, Vendulka Horáčková
    Czech potato gene bank and its application in research and breeding
  • Marie Greplová, Hana Polzerová, Jaroslava Domkářová
    Mutation breeding of Solanum tuberosum using UVC irradiation (A)
  • Renata Švecová, Hana Polzerová, Jiří Ptáček
    Determination of resistance to potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans) in wild potato species Solanum berthaultii and Solanum bulbocastanum using Petri dish test
  • Andrea Svobodová, Pavel Kasal
    Effect of local application of mineral nitrogen fertilizers on potato yield and nitrate content in tubers

Determination of potato emergence date based on meteorological data

LITSCHMANN, T. – DOLEŽAL, P. – HAUSVATER, E.
Vědecké práce – Výzkumný ústav bramborářský Havlíčkův Brod, 2013, 21: 9–16

The submitted study evaluated monitoring of length of the period from planting to potato crop emergence¨(50 % crops) and soil temperature measurements in ten localities in the territory of the Czech Republic.Relatively tight dependence was determined between length of this period and effective temperature sum above 2 °C, calculated from soil temperature. The level of this sum is dependent on variety; its mean value from all localities was 220, 256 and 279 °C for the variety Magda, Riviera and Ditta, respectively. In most cases the deviation between calculated and real emergence date ranged around ±1 day, the highest deviation was 4 days. Derived findings could serve as amendment to late blight forecasting model.

potatoes; emergence date; effective temperature sum

Corresponding author:
RNDr. Tomáš LITSCHMANN, Ph.D., AMET, Velké Bílovice
Žižkovská 1230, 691 02 Velké Bílovice
phone: +420 519 346 252, mobile: +420 731 702 744, e-mail: amet@email.cz

Fungicide efficacy against potato late blight between 2010 and 2013

HAUSVATER, E. – DOLEŽAL, P. – DEJMALOVÁ, J. – BAŠTOVÁ, P.– SEDLÁKOVÁ, V. – MAZÁKOVÁ, J.
Vědecké práce – Výzkumný ústav bramborářský Havlíčkův Brod, 2013, 21: 17–30

In exact field trials established in the central potato production region of the Czech Republic between 2010 and 2013 efficacy of selected fungicides was evaluated against foliage and tuber blight in the medium-early potato variety Ditta, susceptible to late blight. The treatment was initiated based on negative prognosis, in total 6–7 applications were done in 7–10 day intervals. Individual trial years highly differed in weather course and were characterized by extreme temperature and rainfall fluctuations that resulted in significant differences in first occurrences of late blight, beginning and course of epidemic disease spreading and tuber infection. Significant results in tuber infection were only derived in 2010 and 2013, when favourable conditions for tuber infection were recorded. The highest efficacy against foliage blight was determined in cyazofamid, mandipropamid, fluazinam and fluopicolide + propamocarb-hydrochloride. At the same time, these active ingredients also provided the highest efficacy against tuber infection. Therefore fungicides containing these active ingredients are suitable for spraying programmes especially under conditions of high infection pressure of the disease. However, reduction of efficacy was found in combination of fenamidone + propamocarbhydrochloride. It could be connected with presence of strains resistant to propamocarb-hydrochloride in the given region.

potatoes; late blight; fungicides; yields; tuber infection

Corresponding author:
Ing. Ervín HAUSVATER, CSc., Potato Research Institute Havlíčkův Brod, Ltd.
Dobrovského 2366, 580 01 Havlíčkův Brod
phone: +420 569 466 237, mobile: +420 605 981 854, e-mail: hausvater@vubhb.cz

Characteristics determining potato suitability for washing and their relation to cooking types and starch content

DOMKÁŘOVÁ, J. – VOKÁL, B. – SVOBODOVÁ, A. – ČERMÁK, V.
Vědecké práce – Výzkumný ústav bramborářský Havlíčkův Brod, 2013, 21: 31–46

The effect of variety and year on characteristics of potatoes intended for washing was evaluated based on the results from four-year (2009-2012) field trials involving 64 potato varieties. Simultaneously, dependence between studied characteristics, starch content and cooking type was determined. Dependence between silver scurf and skin smoothness was also independently calculated. In washed potatoes skin smoothness, black scurf and silver scurf presence, skin setting, discoloration of peeled tubers, skin greening, sprouting and common scab presence was investigated. Starch content and cooking type was determined in individual varieties. The results show that potato silver scurf was explicitly the decisive index as regard as suitability of individual varieties for washing. A statistical significant effect of variety was also recorded for skin smoothness (however, most varieties passed for this), except for the group of medium-late to late varieties in skin greening (most varieties did not pass) and except for early varieties in sprouting (in this case most varieties passed). A higher year effect was found compared to effect of variety which reached significance in many cases in indices, for which variety effect was not significantly expressed. Direct dependence between skin smoothness and silver scurf was detected (for the whole set r = 0.7085**). Since skin greening could be technologically solved (e.g. shortening the period between washing and sale, minimizing exposure of washed tubers to the light etc.), potato infection with silver scurf is determinative for suitability of potatoes to washing. The results show that we can suppose suitability for washing in variety Capri, Finka, Liliana, Valetta, Annabelle, Baccara, Bohemia, Dali, Marabel, Solo and Rafaela from the evaluated set of varieties. Suitability for washing is decreased with increasing duration of growing period; on contrary to that, appropriately selected technological measures limiting occurrence of silver scurf and also skin greening could positively affect potato quality after washing. Dependence between starch content (cooking type) and evaluated indices was not explicit and it is apparent that it could not be used for determination of potato suitability for washing.

Solanum tuberosum varieties; potato washing; starch content; cooking type

Corresponding author:
Ing. Jaroslava DOMKÁŘOVÁ, Ph.D., MBA, LL.M., Potato Research Institute Havlíčkův Brod, Ltd.,
Dobrovského 2366, 580 01 Havlíčkův Brod

phone: +420 569 466 227, e-mail: domkarova@vubhb.cz

Czech potato gene bank and its application in research and breeding

DOMKÁŘOVÁ, J. – HORÁČKOVÁ, V.
Vědecké práce – Výzkumný ústav bramborářský Havlíčkův Brod, 2013, 21: 47–58

The Czech Republic adopted a contractual liability for holding of cultivated plant genetic resources in its territory. The country creates conditions and provides activities connected with conservation and utilization of gathered collections through the National Programme. Potato Research Institute Havlíčkův Brod was authorized for the activities associated with conservation and use of potato genetic resources in the Czech Republic. Working with potato gene pools has had a long-year tradition in PRI; it has been done without interruption since 1952. Gradually, there was a shift from management of field collections to conservation and propagation under laboratory conditions using in vitro tissue cultures. By 2013, the collection comprised 2,454 genetic resources. They are accessible to research, breeding and education and are especially supplied to practical breeders, research institutions, universities, museums and botanical gardens across the Czech Republic. The accessions are also provided to foreign users. Between 1994 and 2013 in total 5,432 accessions were supplied to the users. Data about potato genetic resources are involved in the database of genetic resources maintained in the Czech Republic.

genetic resources; potato; in vitro; Solanum spp.

Corresponding author:
Ing. Jaroslava DOMKÁŘOVÁ, Ph.D., MBA, LL.M., Potato Research Institute Havlíčkův Brod, Ltd.,
Dobrovského 2366, 580 01 Havlíčkův Brod

phone: +420 569 466 227, e-mail: domkarova@vubhb.cz

Mutation breeding of Solanum tuberosum using UVC irradiation (A)

GREPLOVÁ, M. – POLZEROVÁ, H. – DOMKÁŘOVÁ, J.
Vědecké práce – Výzkumný ústav bramborářský Havlíčkův Brod, 2013, 21: 59–74

UV irradiation was chosen for induction variability of tbr cv. Herby with aim to obtain interesting colour of tuber flesh. Nodal segments and protoplast were used to mutagenesis. Irradiated clones originated from nodal segments were not different from untreated control. The protoplasts were irradiated 2, 4 and 6 minutes (wave length 240 nm, dosage 370 μW cm-2) and cultivated into organogenic calli that gave 16, 22 and 34 individuals respectively. The first treatment generated only low differences compared to control. The 4 and 6 minutes´ variants induced higher variability and four genotypes with exceptional flesh colour were selected for more detailed greenhouse and field assessment. The field cultivation confirmed stability of growth habit and tuber characteristics of chosen genotypes. Herby 4´/7 and Herby 4´/15 kept leaves deformations so they were excluded from experiments next season. All selected genotypes induced flowering. The field assessment of attack of Phytophthora infestans showed the similar level of resistance to this pathogen as tbr cv. Herby. Notable nibbling the leaves by Leptinotarsa decemlineata was not noticed. The mutants and cv. Herby alike has very low resistance to PVY and PVS. All genotypes had different flesh colour, the other tuber characteristics were quite similar to tbr cv. Herby except Herby 4´/15 with yellow skin. Mutant genotypes did not reach the yield of tbr cv. Herby. The possibility of protoplasts UVC irradiation as promising way to obtain suitable mutants utilizable in potato breeding is discussed.

crop parameters; in vitro mutagenesis; nodal segment; protoplast; potato; UV irradiation

Corresponding author:
Ing. Marie GREPLOVÁ, Ph.D., Potato Research Institute Havlíčkův Brod, Ltd.,
Dobrovského 2366, 580 01 Havlíčkův Brod
phone: +420 569 466 239, fax: +420 569 421 578, e-mail: greplova@vubhb.cz

Determination of resistance to potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans) in wild potato species Solanumberthaultii and Solanum bulbocastanum using Petri dish test

ŠVECOVÁ, R. – POLZEROVÁ, H. – PTÁČEK, J.
Vědecke prace – Vyzkumny ustav bramborařsky Havličkův Brod, 2013, 21: 75–82

Wild species Solanum berthaultii and Solanum bulbocastanum are maintained in the gene bank of Potato Research Institute Havličkův Brod. The tested genotypes were transferred from in vitro culture into greenhouse conditions. The samples (the well developed and healthy leaves) were taken after 8 weeks. The resistance of the chosen genotypes to Phytophthora infestans was evaluated using Petri dish test. Statistical assessment was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s test. The average LGR value of tested S. berthaultii genotypes ranged from 0.07 to 2.08, the average LGR value of tested S. bulbocastanum genotypes were in the range from 0.06 to 1.63. The tested genotypes were significantly more resistant compared to control variety Valfi with the average LGR value 5.45. The wild species S. berthaultii and S. bulbocastanum were determinded as moderately to highly resistant to the late blight (Phytophthora infestans).

Solanum berthaultii; Solanum bulbocastanum; Phytophthora infestans; test; resistance

Corresponding author:
Ing. Renata ŠVECOVÁ, Potato Research Institute Havlíčkův Brod, Ltd.,
Dobrovskeho 2366, 580 01 Havličkův Brod
phone: +420 569 466 225, fax: +420 569 421 578, e-mail: svecova@vubhb.cz

Effect of local application of mineral nitrogen fertilizers on potato yield and nitrate content in tubers

SVOBODOVÁ, A. – KASAL, P.
Vědecke prace – Vyzkumny ustav bramborařsky Havličkův Brod, 2013, 21: 83-92

Between 2010 and 2013 a field trial was established with various dates and ways of mineral nitrogen fertilizer application in order to compare conventional mineral fertilization and liquid fertilizer applied into ridges using an applicator after potato crop emergence. Especially the effect of trial variants was studied on crop development, potato yield, starch and nitrate content in tubers. The state of crop was affected by the variants mainly in early developmental stages; in later stages of crop development differences between variants were not evident any more. Trial variants had no statistical significant impact on yield results. The tendency to increased yield between 2010 and 2013 was recorded in the variant with split nitrogen rate, namely in 50 kg/ha DAM 390 broadcasted prior to planting and 50 kg/ha DAM 390 with applicator after emergence and the variant with urea. Trial variants had also no statistical significant effect on nitrogen content in tuber dry matter; however, the content was significantly affected by year.

potato fertilization; nitrogen fertilizer application; potato yield; nitrate content

Corresponding author:
Ing. Andrea SVOBODOVÁ, Potato Research Institute Havlíčkův Brod, Ltd.,
Dobrovskeho 2366, 580 01 Havličkův Brod
phone: +420 569 489 209, e-mail: svobodova@vubhb.cz

Effect of variety, year and locality on starch grain size of starch potato varieties

ŠIMKOVÁ, D. – BUCHER, P. – VOKÁL, B. – SVOBODOVÁ, A. – SEDLÁKOVÁ, V.
Vědecke prace – Vyzkumny ustav bramborařsky Havličkův Brod, 2013, 21: 93–106

The aim of the study was investigation of variety, year and locality effect on starch grain size in 16 potato varieties grown in the Czech Republic. Exact field trials were performed on 5 localities (Domaninek, Horažďovice, Lukavec, Valečov, Vysoke nad Jizerou) between 2005 and 2008. Starch grain size was measured using laser diffraction in starch samples obtained under laboratory conditions. A decisive contribution to mean size of starch grains was recorded for variety (32.56 %). Contribution of locality (5.77 %) and year (3.97 %) was also highly significant; however, markedly lower. On average of the whole set mean starch grain size of 43.30 ± 4.29 μm was determined. The size relatively highly fluctuated and varied between 30.40 μm (late variety Sibu on Valečov in 2005) and 56.60 μm (very late variety Kuras in Horažďovice in 2005, as well). Evaluating individual varieties mean starch grain size ranged between 37.97 ± 2.17 μm (early Tomensa) and 47.10 ± 3.72 μm (early Nomade). Differences among individual localities were relatively small averaged over the whole set and the size ranged between 42.15 ± 4.13 (Valečov) and 44.98 ± 4.97 (Horažďovice). The same is true when comparing individual years (between 42.37 ± 4.31 μm in 2006 and 44.27 ± 3.92 μm in 2008). Surprisingly, growing period duration of individual varieties did not influence starch grain size and similar statement is to a certain extent true for mutual comparison of varieties solely intended for starch production and varieties, which enable broader use (ware, chip and/or French fry production). It is not true that varieties solely intended for starch production have conclusively also larger mean size of starch grains.

potato; variety; year; locality; starch grain size; laser diffraction

Corresponding author:
Ing. Dagmar ŠIMKOVÁ, Ph.D., Potato Research Institute Havličkův Brod, Ltd.,
Dobrovskeho 2366, 580 01 Havličkův Brod
phone: +420 569 466 217, fax: +420 569 421 578, e-mail: simkova@vubhb.cz

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